ΫθΚwj(μμ¦Ν)pκΕ/Thematic Guidelines (South-South Cooperation)
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Chapter 1 An Overview of South-South Cooperation
1-1 Definition of South-South Cooperation
Although there is no internationally standardized definition of "South-South Cooperation," JICA's Taskforce on South-South Cooperation has defined the term as "mutual cooperation aimed at fostering self-sustaining development, involving deepening relations among developing countries while conducting technical and economic cooperation."
1-2 Global Trend toward Supporting South-South-Cooperation
The Buenos Aires Plan of Action adopted in 1978 represents a major milestone in the evolution of South-South Cooperation as it provides practical recommendations for promoting and implementing Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC). United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been playing a major role in the promotion of South-South Cooperation by organizing various international conferences and providing pertinent information. Developing countries themselves are also making joint efforts toward self-sustenance and established the Group of 77 to pursue their collective economic interests.
1-3 Japan's Trend toward Supporting South-South Cooperation
At the time Japan participated in the Colombo Plan in 1954, Japan itself was a developing country supported by World Bank and other aid organizations, and therefore Japan's assistance then was a form of South-South Cooperation (SSC). Because of this historical background, Japan recognizes the importance of SSC and intends to be an active supporter as stated in the ODA Charter and mid-term policies related to ODA. Japan's current support activities for SSC include cooperation under the schemes of Third Country Training Programme, Third Country Expert Dispatch, and Partnership Programme, as well as hosting of international conferences on SSC.
Chapter 2 JICA's Position in Supporting for SSC
2-1 Problems Thus Farm
With regard to JICA's past support activities for SSC, a number of problems have been pointed out, including complicated procedures, improper management of the outcomes of support projects, and invisibility of Japanese assistance. To examine Japan's past activities that were broadly recognized as South-South Cooperation, we divided them into two groups: one group consists of support for developing countries implementing SSC, and the other is related to the utilization of resources in developing countries as useful input for implementing Japan's assistance more effectively and efficiently.
2-2 Five Functions and their Respective Significance
To closely analyze Japan's past activities that were recognized broadly as South-South Cooperation, we sorted them out into five categories according to their function: 1) utilization of human and material resources in developing countries, 2) dissemination of the outcomes of Japanese technical cooperation, 3) collaboration between Japan and donors, 4) support for TCDC (technical cooperation among developing countries), and 5) support for developing countries to become donors ("donorization").
JICA will emphasize categories 1) to 3) as the primary activities for supporting SSC, as they could produce a number of positive outcomes under Japan's strong leadership toward supporting the end-recipient country, such as cost reduction, optimum utilization of appropriate resources, and stronger partnerships among other developing countries. JICA will place a strong emphasis on the "utilization of resources in developing countries" and "collaboration between Japan and donors" in strengthening support for SSC, in addition to the "dissemination of the outcomes of Japan's technical cooperation," which JICA has been promoting actively.
Categories 4) and 5) are distinctly different in nature from categories 1) through 3), as they aim to assist the end-recipient country either indirectly or complementarily through the support for other developing countries that are SSC partners and on their way to becoming donors. With regard to "4) support for TCDC," the urgency and seriousness of each developmental problem commonly found in the region, as well as each country's degree of interest in cooperating with neighboring developing countries, should be examined. "5) support for donorization," should be reviewed by noting the fact that many of the countries are on their way to graduating from external assistance while finding the optimum input levels and methods under systematic overall assistance policies for each country (amount of assistance, priority sectors, modalities of cooperation, etc.) and taking account various factors that could affect the outcomes of SSC, such as the target country's level of commitment to SSC, the degree to which Japan can secure its presence, and political environment of the region.
Chapter 3 Activities for Supporting SSC
3-1 Regional Activities and Priorities
SSC is carried out in different parts of the globe, taking diverse forms and characteristic, to which Japan extends support in a variety of approaches. This chapter introduces examples of these regional characteristics. In the ASEAN region, intra-regional cooperation is promoted to rectify developmental gaps among the countries. Latin America is packaging different SSC schemes, enhancing SSC implementing agencies, and utilizing Japanese immigrants and their descendents living in the region. Africa is promoting intra-regional and inter-regional Africa/Asia cooperation based on TICAD. In Middle East, support is extended toward restoring peace in conflict areas and fostering partnerships among Arab countries.
3-2 Future Challenges
A number of issues remain to be reviewed by the Taskforce on SSC, including: 1) how to verify the efficacy and advantage of utilizing particular human/material resources from developing countries, 2) how to select countries to which to extend support toward "donorization," 3) how to match the ownership of SSC implementing countries and the needs of recipient countries, and 4) till when and to what extent support for "donorization" should be extended.
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