（英）Diagnosis of Avian Influenza at Source for South East Asia Region
Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry Malaysia
Preparedness for a possible influenza pandemic caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A subtype H5N1 has become a global priority. The continued occurences of human infection with these viruses and breached host barrier have compounded pandemic concern. Due to this, the Japanese Government through JICA and Malaysian Government through Ministry of Foreign Affairs together with Department of Veterinary Services as the implementing agency have come up with a program to develop the human capital on the pandemic preparedness and response plans to ensure that there will be effective coordination at every stage to control and eradicate the incidence of the virus in this region. This training program has been continuously implemented since fiscal year 2006 to 2008 for Phase 1 and 2009 to 2011 for Phase 2. This year's program will be the third year of Phase 3 which is organized in three consecutive years from JFY 2013 until JFY 2014.
A fact finding mission was organised in March 2012 to Mongolia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Myanmar in order to determine the effectiveness and impact of the previous programs attended by participants from those countries, and gauge the current situation and issues particularly in the subject of diagnosis of avian influenza. The mission also helped to understand the real needs of each country to upgrade knowledge and skills acquired in this field. Throughout the mission, it is understood that one of the many strategies that are critical for pandemic preparedness is the surveillance of avian influenza viruses. Effective surveillance and efficient laboratory diagnosis on avian influenza are good governance for effective control and eradication of HPAI in the world. Therefore, training modules designed for this course are to give exposure to the participants on the Epidemiology and Laboratory Diagnosis of avian influenza.
Eight countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, Timor Leste and Vietnam have been selected as participating countries for the Phase 3 of this program. Although the course is basically designed for South East Asia Region, Mongolia is also invited due to its important location for migrating birds from South East Asia region that might cause the outbreak of pandemic.
To train experts in this region to become more competent in providing early detection and ability to conduct specific molecular based method to characterize and identify avian influenza virus, and to enhance the capacity of human resource in disease investigation in order to ensure the effective control and eradication of highly pathonic avian influenza.
i. To provide participants with knowledge and practical skill in avian influenza disease surveillance program, examination methods and issues in planning, managing and evaluating HPAI surveillence programs with management of data from surveillence;
ii. To share information and best practices, promote collaboration and networking among key personnel of various laboratories in the region.
Upon completion of this program:
i. participants will have basic knowledge on mechanisms underlying HPAI;
ii. participants will understand and apply disease surveillance programs including HPAI Disease Investigation and Epizootic Emergency Response and Preparedness scheme for rapid containment;
iii. participants will be able to carry out the laboratory procedures for the detection, identification and characterization of avian influenza viruses;
iv. enhancement of networking between the participanting countries including Japan could be promoted;
v. participants will prepare an action plan to take home for appraise or propose implementation.
a. Epidemiology of Avian Influenza
The course will cover training on related topics in the form of lectures, field exercise, presentations, discussion,use of epidemiological tools and excursion. Details are as follows:
i. Descriptive epidemiological investigation
-HPAI disease surveillance (based on disease investigation) for effective early detection;
-Surveillance system and data management;
-HPAI Epizootic Emerging Response including effective and rapid containment of the epizooties;
-Use of molecular epidemiology and applied bioinformatics in HPAI surveillance and control.
ii. Analytical epidemiological investigation
-Designing surveillance and sampling size.
b. Molecular Diagnosis of Avian Influenza
The course will cover training on related topics in the form of lectures and on-the-bench or hands-on practical training. Deatils are as follows:
-Avian infleunza virus, genome and proteins;
-PCR, RT-PCR, gene sequencing;
-Subtyping and characterization of viruses by gene sequencing analyses;
-Choice of tests based on their limitations and advantages.
ii. Molecular-Based Tests
-Preparation of RNA and DNA from field samples;
-PCR and RT-PCR;
-Cleavage site sequencing and interpretation;
i. About 50% of the total amount of project budget.
ii. Formulation, management, monitoring and evaluation of the project.
iii. Dispatch of Japanese experts as guest lecturer during training period in Malaysia.
i. About 50% of the total amount of project budget.
ii. Syllabus, site visits, local lecturers and venues for training program.
iii. Report and evaluation upon completion of training.
Confirmation of coverage of about 50% for the total amount of project from the Government of Malaysia.
1.DVS is the only governmental organisation that deal with animal diseases and zoonotic diseases (diseases that can be transmitted to human) in this country.
2. The Government of Malaysia established the ASEAN Poultry Diseases Research and Training Center (APDRTC) within the compound of VRI.The Government of Japan assisted APDRTC through Grant Aid Project Japan assisted APDRTC through the Grant Aid project "Construction of the ASEAN Poultry Diseases Research and Training Center" (1986/1987), Project-type Technical Cooperation, "ASEAN Poultry Diseases Research and Training Project" (April 1986-April 1993, and after-care cooperation in August 1996-August 1998). Furthermore, Japan supported a Third Country Training Program from FY1991 to FY1995 for the purpose of disseminating the research results and technology of APDRTC to other ASEAN countries.
3.Malaysia has been declared free of HPAI since September 2007.
4.DVS has experince of more than 10 years in organizing training programs to the overseas participants from all over the world icluding those under Malaysian Technical Cooperation Programs (MTCP).
5.DVS also coorperates with FAO and OIE in organising training programs in Malaysia for local and international participants.
6. VRI Ipoh (main project site) is one of the main reference centers for laboratory diagnosis in SEA region.
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